Climate Alarmists have been trying to sell you Communism in an environmental wrapper for over 120 years!

By far, one of my favorite American Thinker posts of all time! SHARE IT!

And if some moron tries telling you that CO2 causes “Climate Change” LAUGH IN THEIR FACE! CO2 makes up a whopping 0.04% of our atmosphere! So every time you hear “CO2 has DOUBLED” just remember…. It went from nearly ZERO, to double that much!

Teach your children that this is a LIE! Then teach them that every plant on earth must have CO2 to survive. Then teach them this is all about controlling their lives, and has nothing whatsoever to do with the Climate or the environment! It’s Communism, rebranded!

August 4, 2014 By Thomas Lifson

120 years of climate scares

Scientists seeking funding and journalists seeking an audience agree: panic sells.

“Global cooling is going to kills us all!” “No, wait: global warming is going to kill us all!”

All that’s  missing is a back-and-forth of “You shut up!” “No, you shut up!” That is reserved for those who doubt the need for panic.

That’s the gist of an amazing chronology of the last 120 years of scare-mongering on climate, assembled by butnowyouknow.net and reprinted by the estimable Anthony Watts in Wattsupwiththat, who updates it to the present. It is truly mind-boggling:

  • 1895 – Geologists Think the World May Be Frozen Up Again – New York Times, February 1895
  • 1902 – “Disappearing Glaciers…deteriorating slowly, with a persistency that means their final annihilation…scientific fact…surely disappearing.” – Los Angeles Times
  • 1912 – Prof. Schmidt Warns Us of an Encroaching Ice Age – New York Times, October 1912
  • 1923 – “Scientist says Arctic ice will wipe out Canada” – Professor Gregory of Yale University, American representative to the Pan-Pacific Science Congress, – Chicago Tribune
  • 1923 – “The discoveries of changes in the sun’s heat and the southward advance of glaciers in recent years have given rise to conjectures of the possible advent of a new ice age” – Washington Post
  • 1924 – MacMillan Reports Signs of New Ice Age – New York Times, Sept 18, 1924
  • 1929 – “Most geologists think the world is growing warmer, and that it will continue to get warmer” – Los Angeles Times, in Is another ice age coming?
  • 1932 – “If these things be true, it is evident, therefore that we must be just teetering on an ice age” – The Atlantic magazine, This Cold, Cold World
  • 1933 – America in Longest Warm Spell Since 1776; Temperature Line Records a 25-Year Rise – New York Times, March 27th, 1933
  • 1933 – “…wide-spread and persistent tendency toward warmer weather…Is our climate changing?” – Federal Weather Bureau “Monthly Weather Review.”
  • 1938 – Global warming, caused by man heating the planet with carbon dioxide, “is likely to prove beneficial to mankind in several ways, besides the provision of heat and power.”– Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
  • 1938 – “Experts puzzle over 20 year mercury rise…Chicago is in the front rank of thousands of cities thuout the world which have been affected by a mysterious trend toward warmer climate in the last two decades” – Chicago Tribune
  • 1939 – “Gaffers who claim that winters were harder when they were boys are quite right… weather men have no doubt that the world at least for the time being is growing warmer” – Washington Post
  • 1952 – “…we have learned that the world has been getting warmer in the last half century” – New York Times, August 10th, 1962
  • 1954 – “…winters are getting milder, summers drier. Glaciers are receding, deserts growing” – U.S. News and World Report
  • 1954 – Climate – the Heat May Be Off – Fortune Magazine
  • 1959 – “Arctic Findings in Particular Support Theory of Rising Global Temperatures” – New York Times
  • 1969 – “…the Arctic pack ice is thinning and that the ocean at the North Pole may become an open sea within a decade or two” – New York Times, February 20th, 1969
  • 1969 – “If I were a gambler, I would take even money that England will not exist in the year 2000″ — Paul Ehrlich (while he now predicts doom from global warming, this quote only gets honorable mention, as he was talking about his crazy fear of overpopulation)
  • 1970 – “…get a good grip on your long johns, cold weather haters – the worst may be yet to come…there’s no relief in sight” – Washington Post
  • 1974 – Global cooling for the past forty years – Time Magazine
  • 1974 – “Climatological Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age” –Washington Post
  • 1974 – “As for the present cooling trend a number of leading climatologists have concluded that it is very bad news indeed” – Fortune magazine, who won a Science Writing Award from the American Institute of Physics for its analysis of the danger
  • 1974 – “…the facts of the present climate change are such that the most optimistic experts would assign near certainty to major crop failure…mass deaths by starvation, and probably anarchy and violence” – New York Times

Cassandras are becoming increasingly apprehensive, for the weather aberrations they are studying may be the harbinger of another ice age

  • 1975 – Scientists Ponder Why World’s Climate is Changing; A Major Cooling Widely Considered to Be Inevitable – New York Times, May 21st, 1975
  • 1975 – “The threat of a new ice age must now stand alongside nuclear war as a likely source of wholesale death and misery for mankind” Nigel Calder, editor, New Scientist magazine, in an article in International Wildlife Magazine
  • 1976 – “Even U.S. farms may be hit by cooling trend” – U.S. News and World Report
  • 1981 – Global Warming – “of an almost unprecedented magnitude” – New York Times
  • 1988 – I would like to draw three main conclusions. Number one, the earth is warmer in 1988 than at any time in the history of instrumental measurements. Number two, the global warming is now large enough that we can ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship to the greenhouse effect. And number three, our computer climate simulations indicate that thegreenhouse effect is already large enough to begin to effect the probability of extreme events such as summer heat waves. – Jim HansenJune 1988 testimony before Congress, see His later quote andHis superior’s objection for context
  • 1989 -“On the one hand, as scientists we are ethically bound to the scientific method, in effect promising to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but – which means that we must include all doubts, the caveats, the ifs, ands and buts. On the other hand, we are not just scientists but human beings as well. And like most people we’d like to see the world a better place, which in this context translates into our working to reduce the risk of potentially disastrous climate change. To do that we need to get some broad based support, to capture the public’s imagination. That, of course, means getting loads of media coverage. So we have to offer up scary scenarios, make simplified, dramatic statements, and make little mention of any doubts we might have. This “double ethical bind” we frequently find ourselves in cannot be solved by any formula. Each of us has to decide what the right balance is between being effective and being honest. I hope that means being both.” – Stephen Schneider, lead author of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,Discover magazine, October 1989
  • 1990 – “We’ve got to ride the global warming issue. Even if the theory of global warming is wrong, we will be doing the right thing – in terms of economic policy and environmental policy” – Senator Timothy Wirth
  • 1993 – “Global climate change may alter temperature and rainfall patterns, many scientists fear, with uncertain consequences for agriculture.” – U.S. News and World Report
  • 1998 – No matter if the science [of global warming] is all phony . . . climate change [provides] the greatest opportunity to bring about justice and equality in the world.” —Christine Stewart, Canadian Minister of the Environment, Calgary Herald, 1998
  • 2001 – “Scientists no longer doubt that global warming is happening, and almost nobody questions the fact that humans are at least partly responsible.” – Time Magazine, Monday, Apr. 09, 2001
  • 2003 – Emphasis on extreme scenarios may have been appropriate at one time, when the public and decision-makers were relatively unaware of the global warming issue, and energy sources such as “synfuels,” shale oil and tar sands were receiving strong consideration” – Jim Hansen, NASA Global Warming activist, Can we defuse The Global Warming Time Bomb?, 2003
  • 2006 – “I believe it is appropriate to have an over-representation of factual presentations on how dangerous it is, as a predicate for opening up the audience to listen to what the solutions are, and how hopeful it is that we are going to solve this crisis.” — Al Gore, Grist magazine, May 2006
  • 2006 – “It is not a debate over whether the earth has been warming over the past century. The earth is always warming or cooling, at least a few tenths of a degree…” —Richard S. Lindzen, the Alfred P. Sloan professor of meteorology at MIT
  • 2006 – “What we have fundamentally forgotten is simple primary school science. Climate always changes. It is always…warming or cooling, it’s never stable. And if it were stable, it would actually be interesting scientifically because it would be the first time for four and a half billion years.” —Philip Stott, emeritus professor of bio-geography at the University of London
  • 2006 – “Since 1895, the media has alternated between global cooling and warming scares during four separate and sometimes overlapping time periods. From 1895 until the 1930’s the media peddled a coming ice age. From the late 1920’s until the 1960’s they warned of global warming. From the 1950’s until the 1970’s they warned us again of a coming ice age. This makes modern global warming the fourth estate’s fourth attempt to promote opposing climate change fears during the last 100 years.” –Senator James Inhofe, Monday, September 25, 2006
  • 2007– “I gave a talk recently (on fallacies of global warming) and three members of the Canadian government, the environmental cabinet, came up afterwards and said, ‘We agree with you, but it’s not worth our jobs to say anything.’ So what’s being created is a huge industry with billions of dollars of government money and people’s jobs dependent on it.” – Dr. Tim Ball, Coast-to-Coast, Feb 6, 2007
  • 2008 – “Hansen was never muzzled even though he violated NASA’s official agency position on climate forecasting (i.e., we did not know enough to forecast climate change or mankind’s effect on it). Hansen thus embarrassed NASA by coming out with his claims of global warming in 1988 in his testimony before Congress” – Dr. John S. Theon, retired Chief of the Climate Processes Research Program atNASA, see above for Hansen quotes

Section updated by Anthony:

  • 2009 – Climate change: melting ice will trigger wave of natural disasters. Scientists at a London conference next week will warn of earthquakes, avalanches and volcanic eruptions as the atmosphere heats up and geology is altered. Even Britain could face being struck by tsunamis – “Not only are the oceans and atmosphere conspiring against us, bringing baking temperatures, more powerful storms and floods, but the crust beneath our feet seems likely to join in too,” – Professor Bill McGuire, director of the Benfield Hazard Research Centre, at University College London, – The Guardian, Sep 2009.
  • 2010 – What Global Warming Looks Like. It was more than 5°C (about 10°F) warmer than climatology in the eastern European region including Moscow. There was an area in eastern Asia that was similarly unusually hot. The eastern part of the United States was unusually warm, although not to the degree of the hot spots in Eurasia. James Hansen – NASA GISS, August 11, 2010.
  • 2011 – Where Did Global Warming Go? “In Washington, ‘climate change’ has become a lightning rod, it’s a four-letter word,” said Andrew J. Hoffman, director of the University of Michigan’s Erb Institute for Sustainable Development.   – New York Times, Oct 15, 2011.
  • 2012 – Global warming close to becoming irreversible-scientists. “This is the critical decade. If we don’t get the curves turned around this decade we will cross those lines,” said Will Steffen, executive director of the Australian National University’s climate change institute, speaking at a conference in London. Reuters, Mar 26, 2012
  • 2013 – Global-warming ‘proof’ is evaporating.  The 2013 hurricane season just ended as one of the five quietest years since 1960. But don’t expect anyone who pointed to last year’s hurricanes as “proof” of the need to act against global warming to apologize; the warmists don’t work that way. New York Post, Dec 5, 2013
  • 2014  – Climate change: It’s even worse than we thought.  Five years ago, the last report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change painted a gloomy picture of our planet’s future. As climate scientists gather evidence for the next report, due in 2014, Michael Le Page gives seven reasons why things are looking even grimmer. –New Scientist (undated in 2014)

Source: American Thinker

We are STILL fighting NAZIS in 2022 because we imported them in 1945 during “Operation Paperclip”

I’m NOT being hyperbolic here, we have another attempted NAZI Takeover of government happening RIGHT NOW in America!

If you will simply compare EXACTLY what the NAZIS did to cement themselves into power and take over Germany, you will be able to clearly see that it’s happening again right here in the United States.

The NAZI Party is alive and well in America!

I just want to point out to you all that we did not actually “Hang” the majority of NAZIS after WW2. We imported them to the US and put them in high level government positions at the CIA and NASA, and they are trying to take over.

Sorry if this is a bit messy, I’m in a hurry and just grabbing a post a made earlier today. But please understand that we are right in the middle of another attempted NAZI Takeover plan!

Medical Ethics at the Center of it All

“The medical crimes of the Third Reich were the result of a dynamic triad involving the state, the medical profession, and an academic enterprise comprising the universities and the research institutes.”

The pivotal factor that led German physicians to become murderers was the usurpation of the medical profession’s traditional commitment to healing, and serving the best interest of the individual patient – with preventive medicine which focuses on the application of interventions aimed at preventing and eliminating suspected genetic defects and disease for the presumed “greater good” of society.

I hope this sounds familiar to you. It’s happening Again!


I HOPE that EVERYONE IS AWARE that we did NOT “Execute” many #Nazis, we actually brought most of them to America and placed them in high level government positions like the CIA / NASA as a part of “Operation Paperclip.”

Those NAZIS we imported are using the exact same playbook as they did in Germany to attempt a takeover in America today! We are literally seeing a “carbon copy” of how Germany was subverted & taken over

I want each and every one of you to look at the glaring similarities of all this to the Nazis! Seriously. The very same Nazis are responsible for this entire Covid19 scam!

Every step of the way the US Government is using the NAZI PLAYBOOK! I mean it cannot get any clearer! They’ve added some Marxism, but other than that it is an identical attack!

Antifa is just the modern version of the “Brown shirts”

1.) Antifa. Their logo is even close to the brown shirts! Used to intimidate people and shut down any opposition to their Evil Plan. Violence, harassment, arson, and intimidation of ALL OPPOSITION is their purpose. It is the brownshirts 2.0

2.) The NAZIS used Academics and Universities to push their ideology EXACTLY how Democrats are doing today! It’s the same playbook!

3.) The NAZIS used The Reichstag Fire to first demonize, and justify the arrest of all opposition, EXACTLY like Democrats are using January 6th!

4.) The NAZIS claimed that Jews were “dirty” and contagious, the exact same way that the unvaccinated are being treated right now! The Jews were also demonized daily, like Trump Supporters are today!

5.) The NAZIS used Doctors and Medical Institutions to classify people as “inferior” exactly like our medical establishment is classifying the unvaccinated as “unworthy of being treated” today!

Déjà Vu anyone?

1932–1945: Doctors & Academics Perverted Medicine & Science in Nazi Germany EXACTLY LIKE DOCTORS & ACADEMICS ARE DOING TODAY!

6. The Weimar government printed up more money and ordered people to strike, shutting down the coal mines and iron factories. As a result, Germany’s economy quickly tanked.

The Weimar government simply printed more money, and inflation increased at an astounding level. The cost of living rose rapidly and many people lost all they had. (Sound familiar?)

As we can all clearly see, this is exactly what the illegitimate Biden Administration is doing right now! We literally have Nazis running the US Government right now. We should have hung them in 1945, but instead our corrupt government imported them into the United States. These Nazis are running the exact same playbook in 2022 as the did to subvert Germany during WW2.

Now, they are subverting our country in the same exact way! Government Officials need to be arrested and Prosecuted for Treason for importing these Nazi Criminals to begin with!

There are many officials who are clearly Traitors, and need to be tried as the Traitor scum they are. Then they should be Hung by the neck until dead if found guilty, The prescribed punishment for a Traitor.

The United States Government has been taken over by the Nazi Party. This time we MUST be sure to HANG THEM!


ALLIANCE FOR HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION
Advancing Voluntary, Informed Consent to Medical Intervention

1932–1945: Doctors & Academics Perverted Medicine & Science in Nazi Germany

November 18, 2014

“The medical crimes of the Third Reich were the result of a dynamic triad involving the state, the medical profession, and an academic enterprise comprising the universities and the research institutes.” (Seidelman, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 2000)

Germany was the birthplace of modern medicine in the early 20th century. The vocabulary of medicine is replete with the names of distinguished German physicians whose discoveries bear their names. The German university served as a model for medical education and thousands of physicians flocked to Germany to complete their scientific medical training. Many Nobel Prize winners in medicine and chemistry of that period were German scientists. So it is all the more shocking that the medical elite played a critical role in subverting the moral tradition of Hippocratic medicine.

Medicine & Medical Ethics_Nazi Germany

Germany’s medical leaders set in motion the downward spiral of medicine from its lofty heights as a healing profession that values the individual person, to a profession obsessed with racial hygiene and obsessed with demonstrating Aryan superiority by denigrating other segments of humanity as inferior subhuman. Medical doctors first classified mentally disabled children and adults as genetically inferior, followed by Jews and gypsies. The  designation “inferior” was not merely humiliating, it escalated methodically into industrialized mass murder and genocide.

These crimes – later judged as “crimes against humanity” – were given the seal of legitimacy by Dr. Alfred Hoche, Professor of Psychiatry, and Karl Binding, Professor of Law. They advocated the “destruction of life unworthy of living” employing pseudo-science and pseudo-law. (Lindert J, Stein Y, Guggenheim H, Jaakkola JJK, von Cranach M, Strous RD.  How Ethics Failed – the Role of Psychiatrists and Physicians in Nazi Programs From Exclusion to Extermination, 1933-1945. Public Health Reviews, 2013)

“German universities and research institutes played a decisive role in the dehumanization, exploitation, and destruction of human life during the Hitler period.” (William Seidelman. . Whither Nuremberg? Medicine’s Continuing Nazi Heritage, Medicine and Global Survival, 1995)

Prominent academic physicians at Germany’s elite universities and research institutes provided the “scientific” rationale to legitimize an eugenic racial-ethnic hierarchy; they crafted the selection criteria for the racial hygiene laws and the directives for their implementation. They were in the forefront who embraced racial hygiene to define humans; they legitimized the professional designation of human beings as “subhuman,” “life without value,” “useless eaters,” “useless life,” “ballast.”

The pivotal factor that led German physicians to become murderers was the usurpation of the medical profession’s traditional commitment to healing, and serving the best interest of the individual patient – with preventive medicine which focuses on the application of interventions aimed at preventing and eliminating suspected genetic defects and disease for the presumed “greater good” of society.

Another factor that is rarely acknowledged, is described in detail by Dr. Michael Grodin, a psychiatrist and American medical ethicist at Boston University:

“physicians are experts at compartmentalization, who deal with life and death every day and whose profession carries a sense of power. The motivation for choosing a career as a physician is often a fantasy of power, either sadistic or voyeuristic, as medicine gives license to look, touch, and control. Doctors medicalize and dehumanize their patients so that they can more easily process what they have to do…using science to objectify their work, they heal by attacking and killing disease with surgery or therapy or whatever tools they have available.”

“Medicine as a profession contains the rudiments of evil, and some of the most humane acts of medicine are only small steps away from evil.”

“During the Holocaust, the paradigm of the Nazi Doctor was Josef Mengel [who] often assumed a dual role with his victims—acting like a parent, playing games, and giving sweets before brutally killing children in his twin experiments…fixating on cleanliness and perfection in his experiments even when the patients  [.. ] would shortly be consigned to death.”

For the doctors in the Nazi party, omnipotence merged with sadism – they took pleasure in domination and control…In the mental struggle to maintain their professional identity, Nazi doctors medicalized, technicalized, and professionalized their activities…they became absorbed in the technical aspects of medical work, examining inmates as a criterion for sending them to the gas chambers…identifying themselves as part of a larger machine working to ‘heal’ society…

SS doctors would kill and then have a meal, flog and then dress for dinner, torture and then listen to the opera and return to the camp.

Table 5.2  Why Physicians are Vulnerable to Becoming Perpetrators:

  • Compartmentalization
  • Tendencies toward sadism, voyeurism
  • Healing through hurting
  • Use of science to objectify violence
  • Use of metaphors and euphemisms
  • Justifying and rationalizing
  • Medicalizing Narcissistic grandiocity

Through these justifications within the larger social context of ‘political medicine,’ Nazi doctors were able to mentally transform murderous acts into acts of healing. ” (Grodin, “Mad, Bad, or Evil: How Physician Healers Turn to Torture, Murder and Genocide From the Nazi Doctors to Abu Ghraib” in Medicine After the Holocaust: From the Master Race to the Human Genome and BeyondEdited by Sheldon Rubenfeld, MD 2010)

Of all the professions in Germany, physicians had the highest ratio of Nazi party membership – 50% to 65% of the physicians in Germany voluntarily joined the Nazi Party; and physicians joined the SS seven times more than teachers or average male employees. But not only physicians who were members of the Nazi party conducted experiments meeting the definition of torture. (Volker Roelcke, MD, “Academic Medicine During the Nazi Period and Implications for Creating Awareness of Professional Responsibility Today” in Medicine After the Holocaust, 2010)

Doctors became the unseen generals in Hitler’s war against the Jews and others deemed inferior. Doctors created the science, devised the eugenic formulas, wrote the legislation, and even hand-selected the victims for sterilization, euthanasia and mass extermination. Hitler’s deputy, Rudolf Hess, coined a popular adage in the Reich, “National Socialism is nothing but applied biology.”

The entire German health care system was mobilized:  selection for forced sterilization was a medical procedure; physicians registered patients with “genetic illness” just like they register births and deaths. High ranking medical academics submitted written “expert medical opinions” attesting to individual’s disability was due to a “genetically determined” disease. Final authorization for forced sterilization was made by Hereditary Health Courts—made up of two physicians and a judge.

“the [sterilization] law must be looked upon as an expression of loving care for the coming generations, and as an act of altruism. The elimination of defective genes is not of itself sufficient to keep our nation healthy and energetic, for this purging of the common gene palmist must be complemented by positive population measures” (Deutsches Arzteblatt [Journal of the German Medical Association], 1933 in “Not Slippery Slope” by Dr. Hartmut Hanauske-Abel, 1996)

The Sterilization Law served as a model for all subsequent Nazi eugenic legislation.

Venerable Academic Research Institutions
In 1911, the Kaiser-Wilhelm organization gave rise to the most prestigious and influential scientific and academic institutes in the world, encompassing a wide scope of scientific disciplines. But as William Seidelman, MD reports,

“Three of its institutes that were beneficiaries of the Rockefeller Foundation [K-W Psychiatry (Munich); K-W Brain Research (Berlin-Buch); K-W Anthropology, Genetics, Eugenics (Berlin-Dahlem)] played an important role in the development, implementation and exploitation of the racial programs of the Third Reich including murderous experiments and the exploitation of the dead. Kaiser-Wilhelm scientists joined with the Nazi state in pursuit of the goal of improving the people’s health (Volksgesundheit), the major emphasis being on eugenic and racial purification.

The resulting collaboration between science and the Nazi state not only legitimized the policies and programs of the Hitler regime but it resulted in the exploitation and mutilation and murder of untold thousands of innocent victims by physicians and scientists associated with some of the world’s leading universities and research institutes. The participation of scientists associated with the Kaiser-Wilhelm Society enhanced the credibility of the Nazi state’s program of scientific terror and murder.” (William E. Seidelman, MD. Science and Inhumanity, 2001)

Leading academic institutions and rank and file practicing physicians were active participants who developed the medical means for mass sterilization, surgical mutilation, and murderous initiatives — T-4 — all of which aimed at forcibly preventing life and exterminating the living on a massive scale. The medical establishment supported and actively participated in the debasement of German medicine and are responsible for the medical atrocities — whose first victims were handicapped infants and children, followed by institutionalized mental patients, followed by Jews, Gypsies and other prisoners in Nazi concentration camps. And they exploited Nazi executions to obtain endless supplies of human body parts for research and education.

“Not a Slippery Slope or Sudden Subversion: German Medicine and National Socialism in 1933,”is powerful, myth shattering article by Dr. Hartmut Hanauske-Abel. It was published on the 50th Anniversary of the Nuremberg Doctors Trial, in the BMJ and in Medicine & Global Survival, Vol. 3 (1996). Dr. Hanauske-Abel challenges the “slippery slope” and “sudden subversion” explanations for the atrocities perpetrated by German physicians. The “slippery slope” and “sudden subversion” –i.e., rape –explanations are a perversion of the truth; implying the inevitability of small missteps leading to unintended consequences, whereas the overwhelming evidence proves the physicians’ enthusiastic culpability.

[“Slippery slope”] connotes a gradual slide over infinitesimal steps until, suddenly, all footing is lost; the second conveys forced take over of the profession’s leadership and values. Both concepts imply that the medical profession itself became the victim of circumstances. The slippery slope concept is a prominent figure of argument in the current debate on bioethics. The evidence presented here, however, strongly suggests that the German medical community set its own course in 1933. In some respects this course even outpaced the new government, which had to rein in the profession’s eager pursuit of enforced eugenic sterilisations.

The damning evidence Dr. Hanauske-Abel presents is in the form of primary documents which provide the professional context for the cataclysmic degeneration of medicine. He provides excerpts from original articles published in leading German professional medical journals in 1932–1933. [To avoid selection bias, he excludes excerpts from Nazi medical journals — even though they were widely read by physicians. The English translations are not his own.]

The excerpts attest to the medical establishment’s enthusiastic support of Hitler immediately following his political take-over; and they attest to the pivotal role that the medical establishment assumed voluntarily in the formulation and enforcement of racial hygiene policies. (Read Journal Excerpts)

German physicians were attracted to Nazism for its adoption of biological interventions as a national cure for societal problems and for elevating medicine as the preeminent academic discipline. Under the Third Reich, 30% of all university faculty were in medical disciplines; racial hygiene, a newly established scientific medical discipline, assumed great importance.Between 1933 and 1945, 59% of university and college presidents were medical doctors. [Seidelman, 1995]

Forced sterilization galvanized German physicians’ enthusiasm for the Nazi party
By 1936, 45% of the physicians in Germany had joined the Nazi Party — the highest ratio of any profession; and physicians joined the SS seven times more than teachers or average male employees. At German universities Nazi membership was even higher; for example, 81% of the Jena Medical Faculty were Nazi party members, and 31% were members of the SS. (Zeidman, MD, Stone MD, Kondzella MD, PhD. New Revelations, 2013)

Racial hygiene for the improvement of national health (Volksgesundheit) became the moral imperative overriding individual rights. Evidence of enthusiastic collusion by the German medical establishment with the Hitler administration is evident in the medical journal literature of the day. That collaborative partnership was pivotal for the radical transformation of German society and the transformation of medicine into a lethal weapon for mass destruction.

Nazi Eugenics Poster

Nazi Eugenics Poster, 1935

“In 1933 the convergence of political, scientific, and economic forces dramatically changed the relationship between the medical community and the government. That same convergence is occurring again and must be approached with great caution if medicine is to remain focused on the preservation of physical and medical integrity.” (Hartmut Hanauske-Abel “Not Slippery Slope”, 1996)

Professor Volker Roelcke, MD, PhD (University of Geisen, Germany) is a world renowned scholar focused on medical ethics and medicine during the Nazi era and the relevance for both the medical profession and the broader public about the importance of ethics in human subjects research. He stresses the importance of including “systematic historical reflection in present day ethical debates on human subjects research…[for example] the legitimacy of research involving human embryonic stem cells, clinical trials in the third world…”

He notes that bioethicists who contend that Nazi medicine bears no relevance to today’s research involving human subjects “lack awareness of the historical dimensions implicit in today’s value preferences.” He faults bioethicists for relying on “deficient, faulty, or misconceived secondary or tertiary literature, often ignoring more recent historical analyses that call into question earlier interpretations.”

Roelcke argues that German medical science stood in the mainstream of western medical scientific research in accordance with the field of specialty:

“Nazi scientific research, he argues, must be seen as “normal” in so far as it simply obeyed the basic imperative of all scientific research, which is the pursuit of a scientifically defined truth.

all researchers followed the intrinsic logic of their scientific disciplines and used the legally and ethically unrestricted access to human beings created by the context of the political system and the conditions of war. 

Rather than being the result of a coercive state, Nazi medicine illustrates how medical researchers and their representative bodies co-operated with and even manipulated a totalitarian state and political system relying on expert opinion, in order to gain resources for the conduct of research without any moral and legal regulation.”  (Twentieth Century Ethics of Human Subjects Research: Historical PerspectivesEdited by Volker Roelcke MD, PhD and Giovanni Maio, MD, PhD , 2004)

Posted in Nazi Medical Atrocities and tagged InfantseugenicsPsychiatryBMJWilliam SeidelmanSheldon RubenfeldHartmut Hanauske-Abel“Not Slippery Slope”)physicians compartmentalizationMichael GrodinMedicine After the HolocaustFrom Master Race to Human GenomeMedicine and Medical Ethics in Nazi GermanyFrancis NicosiaJonathan HuenerVolker Roelcke

Source:

ALLIANCE FOR HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION
Advancing Voluntary, Informed Consent to Medical Intervention


From the History Channel

The Weimar Republic was Germany’s government from 1919 to 1933, the period after World War I until the rise of Nazi Germany. It was named after the town of Weimar where Germany’s new government was formed by a national assembly after Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated. From its uncertain beginnings to a brief season of success and then a devastating depression, the Weimar Republic experienced enough chaos to position Germany for the rise of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party.

Germany After World War I

Germany didn’t fare well after World War I, as it was thrown into troubling economic and social disorder. After a series of mutinies by German sailors and soldiers, Kaiser Wilhelm II lost the support of his military and the German people, and he was forced to abdicate on November 9, 1918.

The following day, a provisional government was announced made up of members of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USDP), shifting power from the military.

In December 1918, elections were held for a National Assembly tasked with creating a new parliamentary constitution. On February 6, 1919, the National Assembly met in the town of Weimar and formed the Weimar Coalition. They also elected SDP leader Friedrich Ebert as President of the Weimar Republic.

On June 28, the Treaty of Versailles was signed, which ordered Germany to reduce its military, take responsibility for the World War I, relinquish some of its territory and pay exorbitant reparations to the Allies. It also prevented Germany from joining the League of Nations at that time.

READ MORE: Did WWI Lead to WWII?

Weimar Constitution

On August 11, 1919, the Weimar Constitution was signed into law by President Ebert. The law faced venomous opposition from the military and the radical left. The Constitution contained 181 articles and covered everything from the structure of the German state (Reich) and the rights of the German people to religious freedom and how laws should be enacted.

The Weimar Constitution included these highlights:

  • The German Reich is a Republic.
  • The government is made of a president, a chancellor and a parliament (Reichstag).
  • Representatives of the people must be elected equally every four years by all men and women over age 20.
  • The term of the President is seven years.
  • All orders of the President must be endorsed by the Chancellor or a Reich Minister.
  • Article 48 allows the President to suspend civil rights and operate independently in an emergency.
  • Two legislative bodies (the Reichstag and the Reichsrat) were formed to represent the German people.
  • All Germans are equal and have the same civil rights and responsibilities.
  • All Germans have the right to freedom of expression.
  • All Germans have the right to peaceful assembly.
  • All Germans have the right to freedom of religion; there is no state church.
  • State-run, public education is free and mandatory for children.
  • All Germans have the right of private property.
  • All Germans have the right to equal opportunity and earnings in the workplace.

Hyperinflation and the Fallout

Despite its new constitution, the Weimar Republic faced one of Germany’s greatest economic challenges: hyperinflation. Thanks to the Treaty of Versailles, Germany’s ability to produce revenue-generating coal and iron ore decreased. As war debts and reparations drained its coffers, the German government was unable to pay its debts.

Some of the former World War I Allies didn’t buy Germany’s claim that it couldn’t afford to pay. In a blatant League of Nations breach, French and Belgian troops occupied Germany’s main industrial area, the Ruhr, determined to get their reparation payments.

The Weimar government ordered German workers to passively resist the occupation and go on strike, shutting down the coal mines and iron factories. As a result, Germany’s economy quickly tanked.

In response, the Weimar government simply printed more money. The effort backfired, however, and further devalued the German Mark—and inflation increased at an astounding level. The cost of living rose rapidly and many people lost all they had.

According to Paper Money, written by George J. W. Goodman under the pseudonym Adam Smith, “the law-abiding country crumbled into petty thievery.” An underground bartering economy was established to help people meet their basic needs.

Dawes Plan

Germany elected Gustav Stresemann as their new chancellor in 1923. He ordered Ruhr workers back to the factories and replaced the Mark with a new currency, the American-backed Retenmark.

In late 1923, the League of Nations asked U.S. banker and Director of the Budget, Charles Dawes, to help tackle Germany’s reparations and hyperinflation issues. He submitted the “Dawes Plan” which outlined a plan for Germany to pay more reasonable reparations on a sliding scale. Dawes was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts.

The Dawes Plan and Stresemann’s leadership helped stabilize the Weimar Republic and energize its economy. In addition, Germany repaired relations with France and Belgium and was finally allowed into the League of Nations, which opened the door for international trade. In general, life improved in the Weimar Republic.

Great Depression

Much of the Weimar Republic’s recovery was due to a steady flow of American dollars into its economy. But unbeknownst to Germany, America had positioned itself for an economic disaster of its own as it struggled with increased unemployment, low wages, declining stock values and massive, unliquidated bank loans.

On October 29, 1929, the U.S. stock market crashed, sending America into a devastating economic meltdown and ushering in the Great Depression.

The stock market crash had a global ripple effect. It was especially devastating for the newly recovered Weimar Republic. As the flow of American money dried up, Germany could no longer meet their financial responsibilities. Businesses failed, unemployment rates rose and Germany faced another devastating economic crisis.

Article 48

During hyperinflation, the German middle class bore the brunt of the economic chaos. When another financial crisis hit, they grew weary and distrustful of their government leaders. Searching for new leadership and fearing a Communist takeover, many people turned to extremist parties such as the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler, despite his unpopular and failed attempt to start a national revolution in 1923.

In 1932, the Nazi Party became the largest political party in Parliament. After a brief struggle for power, Hitler was named Chancellor in January 1933. Within weeks, he invoked Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution to quash many civil rights and suppress members of the Communist party.

In March 1933, Hitler introduced the Enabling Act to allow him to pass laws without the approval of Germany’s Parliament or President. To make sure the Enabling Act was passed, Hitler forcibly prevented Communist Parliament members from voting. Once it became law, Hitler was free to legislate as he saw fit and establish his dictatorship without any checks and balances.

Sources

1929: A Turning Point During the Weimar Republic. Facing History and Ourselves.
Charles G. Dawes: Biographical. Nobelprize.org.
The Enabling Act. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Holocaust Encyclopedia.
The Weimar Republic. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Holocaust Encyclopedia.
The Weimar Republic and the Third Reich. Wesleyan University.
Volume 6. Weimar Germany, 1918/19–1933 The Constitution of the German Empire of August 11, 1919 (Weimar Constitution). German History in Documents and Images.
Weimar Republic. New World Encyclopedia.
Commanding Heights: The German Hyperinflation, 1923. PBS.org.
War I Aftermath. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Holocaust Encyclopedia.

Citation Information

Article Title

Weimar Republic

AuthorHistory.com Editors

Website Name

HISTORY

URL

https://www.history.com/topics/germany/weimar-republic

Access Date

July 7, 2022

Publisher

A&E Television Networks

Last Updated

March 4, 2021

Original Published Date

December 4, 2017

GERMANY

BY

 HISTORY.COM EDITORS

Source: The History Channel

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